### Democracy Now

News/Business. Independent global news hour featuring news headlines, in depth interviews and investigative reports. (CC) (Stereo)

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#### TOPIC FREQUENCY

Ted 4, Us 3, Cube 3, Ma 2, Sa 2, Ted Barnstorm 1, Rhinoceros 1, Steve Vogel 1, Lee 1, Longlegs 1, Hewitt 1, Boston 1, Hummingbird 1, Unit Area 1, The L. 1, Big 1, Kinda 1, Ta 1, Skinny 1, Yehey 1,
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September 27, 2012
8:00 - 9:00am PDT

8:00am
okay. gang, let's begin. you know what we're gonna talk about today?
8:01am
scaling, scaling. and we talk about scaling, you know, we ain't talking about the distinction between area and volume. you guys know what area is? area is measured in square centimeter, square meter, something like that, yeah. you know what volume is? cubic meters, size. got a question for you. see the water in here? i'm gonna pull the water in this vessel into this one. and what you're gonna do here you make an estimate. when i pour the water in, it'll come to about halfway. no. it'll come to probably less than halfway. - no. - no. no. it'll probably come to more than halfway. more than halfway. check your neighbors. see what your neighbor be estimating. okay. gang, here we go. appreciably more than halfway, is that not amazing?
8:02am
you know what's going on here, gang? volume. guess what geometrical shape has the minimum area. a sphere, a sphere. that's why the sun and stars are round. that's why the earth is round. it's pulled in to the least surface areas. and a sphere has a very, very small volume compared to its-- i mean a small area-- area. that's-- --compared to its volume. now, this volume and this volume are one and the same. right. it turns out, with little grade school kids they can't see that. there's a certain stage of development that one must go to before they can deal-- we can deal with these ideas, can't we, right? okay. we know the volumes are the same. in fact, i get-- pour it right back and say, "is it gonna overflow again?" no. now that your seeing the answer, what are you gonna say? no. maybe. but if you didn't see it before, what would you say? no. yes. isn't that something? so why is it that this looks to be so much more than this?
8:03am
- size. - size. because this has considerably more area. the number of square centimeters of red you see here are much more than the number of square centimeters that you see here. so the area, volume different. and here, we're kinda judging the volume by what we see, but all you can see is the area, except that you can see through it. isn't that kinda neat? and some really interesting things happen when you scale things up. you know, as you scale things up like a plant starts to grow, as it gets bigger and bigger, it gets heavier and heavier, right? there's got more surface area, yeah? when it gets twice as heavy, does it have twice the leaf area? leaf area? and it turns out, answer begins with an n. no. all right, begins with the n and ends with the o. try it. no. no. and--and that's what we're gonna talk about, today. okay. we've all, we have all-- am i being presumptuous in saying this?
8:04am
we all have, as little kids, have looked at little ants. we take the time to do that when we were kids. we look at little ants crawling around and lifting little boulders, boulders compared to their own size, yeah? and we marvel at how strong the ants are. is there anyone in here who did not as a child stop and look at the ants and see them carrying little chunks of rock, and who did not marvel about how strong they seem to be? who? huh. [laughter] what? deprived childhood is-- well, most of us have looked at such things, right? let me ask you a question. how strong you suppose that ant is? strong or strong-strong? strong-strong. compared to-- for sure? compared to what? good point. let's suppose this happens, gang. an elephant walks to this door. the elephant is gonna start lifting up logs. a door over here, an ant walks through that's just as big as the elephant, a super ant.
8:05am
this super ant is been-- [makes sounds] --i don't know how it's been done, science fiction, okay? scaled up. and it scaled up, so, that ant-- [makes sounds] --the same size as the elephant. now, they're gonna have a contest to see who can lift a greater load. who are you gonna be betting on? elephant. ants. check your neighbor. is there anyone in here says, "honey, the ant can't even do push ups. the elephant is the one that's the strongest." show of hands. all right. these are my people. these are the people who have read the book. the rest of you guys come in for a free lunch today, right? what's that thing all about, yeah? come on. that ant couldn't make it. the legs are too skinny. yeah, i see. why ants got skinny leg? ever see a daddy longlegs? ever see a rhinoceros, an elephant? humongous legs, very, very thick. why? because as things get scaled up, scaled up and scaled up, it turns out the thickness of the leg
8:06am
doesn't catch up with the bulk of the body. let's see if we can understand these ideas with the simple example. here's a cube. if i make this cube twice as big. how much heavier will it be? are we gonna say, "--what do you mean by twice as big?" this is what i mean, twice as tall, twice as wide and twice as thick. how heavy will it be compared to now? check your neighbors. here's one twice as big, gang. twice as big has twice as much weight? no. everyone who say that, stand up so the rest of us see what you look like. really? the same guy. [laughter] --this guy has a--okay. no, it turned out this can be how much heavier? - four. - eight. eight times. look, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, oh, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8:07am
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12 times as heavier, yes. [laughter] just-- i'm counting the same one twice, yeah. but 1 cube 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, then we have to assume that there's one down back there we can't see, yeah. it's eight times as much. so let me ask you a question. let's suppose somebody walks in the door, six feet tall, 200 pounds athlete. take that person, put him in a science fiction type machine, push the button-- [makes sounds] --scaled up, 12' tall. shoulders twice as wide, chest twice as deep, twice as big. he don't weigh 200 pounds anymore. now, he weighs? 16. 800. check the neighbor. how much would he get weighed in? how many say 1,600 pounds? that's right, that's right, see. 'cause if this block here weighs two. what's this block weigh? eight times two.
8:08am
now, i have a block here, but it would work with the person. it would work with-- all the ideas we're gonna talk about today will work with any shape. it's just that by working with little cubes, it's easier to get the principle. now, how strong a person is has to do with how thick their bones are. that person whose 1,600 pounds, if he jump from here to the floor he'll break his legs. it might be even jumping from a high cliff stone to the ground, he'll break his legs. you know why? are his legs thicker? yeah. yup. they're twice as thick. now, when it's twice as thick, okay, the cross sectional area, let's suppose this is a leg bone. the cross sectional area is like here, huh. what's the cross sectional area of this piece over here? four times as much. okay. so we have the cross sectional area here of one, and we double it up, it's four. let's look at the weight, and weight and volume are proportional.
8:09am
to say these two blocks have twice the volume as one block and they have twice the weight. and over here we have what? here's a block scale though. now a block two by two by two. look, this is eight times as heavy 'cause it's eight times the volume. but the cross-sectional area is four. so what do we do? that fellow's legs, this--or arms, okay, the thick--no--the muscles have to do with the cross-sectional area. how many tendon do you have there? how many--not tendons but how many little muscles pulling down, yeah? the cross-sectional area. and the cross-sectional here is one and the weight. cross-sectional area is one to one. but when you double the size of something, the cross-sectional area goes up to four but the weight goes up to... eight. eight. and 4/8, that's like 1/2. let me ask you a question, what if you took that cube and you triple the size?
8:10am
triple the height, triple the width, triple the depth, boom. what it's gonna be? -- now, it's gonna be something like this. can you kind of see that? can you count 'em up? then we get out. the cross section, area. where's the cross-sectional area now? it's sliced through that. nine. nine. now, it's gonna be-- here's gonna be nine. and what's the weight's gonna be? 27. 27. 27, gang. can you count 'em up? three, 3, 3, 3. nine after nine, i see. and what do we got here? 1/3. 1/3. as we keep going up and up and up, it turns out that the weight gets a lot bigger than a cross sectional area. and you know what, the strength, the strength has to do with the cross-sectional area. so the strength-to-weight ratio goes down as things get bigger and bigger. so if you're gonna scale that person up, and you're gonna make it in this world,
8:11am
he's gonna have disproportionately thick legs, much thicker legs than , say, he's in proportion to his body than, i say, at six feet. if you look at the animals, the largest, the heaviest animals have disproportionately thick bones. look at here, a skeleton of a cat and a skeleton of an elephant. scales so that they both have about the same size. look at the size of the bones on the elephant's legs compared to the cat's legs. this is an illustration from a book by steve vogel. it's called, life's devices: the physical world of plants and animals. and so, sure enough, elephants have thicker legs in proportion to their size than, say, daddy longlegs or any other kind of insect. 'cause as these things get bigger and bigger, the strength doesn't keep up with the weight, so you got to compensate and make extra thick legs. we are really designed for the environment
8:12am
which we live, gang. that's the message. you know, you see the king kong movies? king kong all scaled up like that? no way. king kong scaled up in proportion-- wouldn't be able to stand up. he'd be crushed by his own weight. even whales have a hard time. whales are just too darn big. and so whales--do you know what happens to a whale when he gets beached? [makes sound] pretty well crushed by its own weight. so it has to stay in the water that's--overtime. large creatures not so well designed for the world we live in. i can take a toothpick, and i can hold a toothpick between my fingers. you can't see the sag. the tiny sag that's there, you can't see, it's not noticeable. but take that same toothpick and scale it up. let's suppose you make it 10 times bigger. 10 times longer, 10 times thicker, 10 times wider? is it gonna be heavier? no.
8:13am
10 times as heavy? no. no. it turns out the volume goes up as the cube, so it's 10 times 10 times 10. it will be a thousand times as heavy. how about the cross-sectional area, the strength? that will go up as the square, 10 times 10, so it would be 100 times stronger. but carrying 1,000 times the weight, gang, you would see it sag noticeably. that's why people who make models of bridges out of toothpicks, and they think all they got to do is make a bigger one out of, you know, a bigger materials, and it turns out they crush. it turns out the engineers get paid a lot of money to do things like make skyscrapers. you know, the golden gate bridge? when the golden gate bridge was being built, being planned, a lot of people who knew about this sort of thing said, "no way, you're not gonna make a bridge that big. "you can make a little model. "but if you scale it up, the strength-to-weight ratio is gonna kill you." and it turned out they were able to do it anyway.
8:14am
and even some of the skyscrapers were built today are really marvels of engineering, because they're having a deal with this idea of the strength-to-weight ratio. any questions? i wanna talk about the idea of the total area, the total area of something. what's the total area of this cube? let's call this one unit. then the area, the total area is one here, two, three, four. can you see there's six sides, okay? so i have a total area here of six. so far, i've been talking about cross-sectional area, just the area through here. let's talk about the total area. the total area-to-weight or to volume. let's call it volume, area-to-volume. okay. here it's six to one.
8:15am
why do i put six to one over here for? because there's six square units compared to one cubic unit, all right? the volume of this, this times this times this, one cubic unit. the area is one times one, but you got six of them, so six. so it's six to one. now, what happens to the ratio of surface area to volume as you scale up? the consequences of that are very important. it turns out there's a mismatch, because as you scale up, the area is gonna increase as the square of the increase, but the volume increases as to what? cube. cube. let me show you what i mean. over here, i've made my thing twice the size, so my area now is gonna be what? it's gonna be 4 on any side times 6 is 24. when i doubled it up, i've got a total area of 24 square units.
8:16am
do you see that? counting all the sides, yeah? what's the volume? eight. eight. what's my ratio-- 3:1. --of area to volume? 3:1. my ratio is 3:1. my ratio for the small thing was 6:1. a lot more area compared to volume over here, less area compared to volume. what happens over here? what's my total area for a three by three by three? 54. 54. every one side is nine. nine sixes. 54. 54 total area, unit area. what's my unit volume? 27. 27. 27. 27 under 54? two over one. calculator? two to one. two over one. i've already looked it up, let me tell you. it's two to one, okay? the message is this, gang, as things scale up, up, up in size, the ratio of area to volume goes down, down, down, down, down.
8:17am
that means little things have more skin, more surface compared to the volume than big things. every cook kind of knows when they're gonna buy some potatoes, they're on to this. let's supposed you're gonna buy some potatoes and you're gonna peel some potatoes and cook up some potatoes on and you're gonna have friends over, okay? mashed potatoes, no skins. say you're gonna peel them all. now, someone says-- and he find out that you want to get two kilograms of potatoes. now, should you get two kilograms of big potatoes or two kilograms of little potatoes to feed the most people? -- how about you get two kilograms of little potatoes? the little cherry ones, the little cute ones. then you peel those things, okay? you got a pile of peelings like this, yeah? how about you peel the big potatoes? [makes sounds] a little pile. so you got more potato per kilogram if you get the big ones after you get through peeling.
8:18am
let's supposed your mother say, "hey, i want you to peel something for me." "what i got to peel, ma?" "you just got to peel a pound of fruit." "okay, then i can go out?" "yeah, you can go out after that." "what's the fruit, ma?" "raisins." [laughter] and you will spend your whole weekend peeling on those raisins, okay? they're little, there's awful lot of skin per pound, per kilograms, do you know what i'm saying? and something big. a little bit of skin per kilogram. so little things have more surface area compared to their weight, compared to their volume than big things. do you ever notice that before? you got a glass, you got an ice, you got a drink, you wanna cool it. someone says, "put an ice cube." someone else said, "no, crush the ice cube up "and then put it in. it'll make the drink cool faster if you crushed it up." someone else say, "it's the same amount of ice either way. it makes no difference." you say-- person next to you said--
8:19am
-- what's the answer, gang? how many people say, "it's the same amount. "hey, it's gonna cool. it's the same way, either way. "make no difference. hey, wait a minute, though. "hey, wait a minute. "no, if you crush the ice, you gotta get a whole a lot "of little pieces. "and a whole a lot of little pieces "will have more combined area, than a big piece. crush it up. crush it up." how many people say, yeah? yey. and you got a great big log and you wanna light it with a match. someone says, leave it in a great big log, it'll last longer, so you have it all night. so you take your match-- what are you doing with a log? you shave off little pieces? and when you get little pieces, why will it catch fire quicker? more surface area. more surface area. more surface area. yeah. you got some steel wool sitting in your sink. and the steel wool gets rusted out, in one month it's gone. but the same hunk of steel from which it was made will stay there for a year. how come the steel wool gets rusty and rusts away and the hunk of steel like-- more what? sa, sa. surface area. yeah.
8:20am
you gonna cook some french fries. yeah, but the skinny ones, it's gonna cook faster than big fat ones? why? - more surface area. - more surface area. you're making some meatballs. kinda taking a long time to cook, so you flatten them out so there's more surface area. it cook faster? yeah. yeah. yeah. it cook faster. big people--lee? all right. can ants breathe through their skin? say again. i think the ants breathe through their skin. ants? ants? insects breathe through their skin. they got a lot of skin or a little skin compared to that-- that which they have to nourish. begin with the l. - a lot. - a lot. okay? human beings can't do that. you know why? we're too big. so we have to have another system all together. so we've developed what? an awful lot of surface area. it's all inside. take your lungs, gang, and flatten them out. cover the rug of all this room and two other rooms too.
8:21am
you have enormous surface area on your lungs. all those little many folds, and see you make up for that too. how about the intestines of a being? what's the intestines of a worm look like? straight line too. from mouth to back. huh? how about the intestines of something big like a human being? many, many folds. you know why? 'cause as you get bigger and bigger, you got more and more to nourish and you got to get more and more surface area. you think so? okay. gets bigger and bigger, right? let's suppose the living cell gets double the size. someone say, "oh, double the size and it got four times as much skin." but four times as much skin feeding how much more cell? eight times as much cell. so its teeth grow and grow. and, honey, the skin don't keep up with the cell that's got to be fed. so you know what it's gonna do? it's gonna die or divide. guess what it do? divides. it divides. aren't you glad that they divide,
8:22am
'cause it can't keep grow and growing and growing. it will die inside, yeah? and so it divides. and that's why cells divide. or i could say why they do. but if they don't, they die. cells have to divide and keep to get--why? because the skin, compared to volume, keeps getting less and less as it gets big, big, big. so, it's gonna get break into little pieces, smaller pieces. kinda neat, huh? kinda relevant, yeah? it turns out that little things have more skin than big things? how about little people? little people had more skin than big people? when i was a kid, they always used to call me skinny. you know why they called me skinny? looking back, i can see why. 'cause i had like-- like i told you guys before, i weighed about 85 pounds in freshman in high school. and all my friends weighed over a hundred and you're skinny. in fact, i used to find out that walking in the cold streets of boston, i always used to seek the sunny side in the winter.
8:23am
after the getting the sun-- to keep warm. my friends-- big, healthy friends, they could walk in the shade. say "hewitt, how come you walk in the sun?" someone says "'cause his skinny." that's true. because i was skinny. you know what that means, skinny? too much skin compared to my body. where do you radiate your heat, gang? through your what? begin with sk. - skin. - skin. okay? through your surface. you're radiating all the time. you're losing heat. you're warmer than the environment. and so you're radiating off heat all the time. who radiates off heat the most, the one with most skin or the most--one of the least skin? the one with the most skin. and the most skin per body weight are skinny people or smaller people. big people don't radiate so much compared to the body weight. little things like little animals like rats and mice, they're little, yeah? they got a lot of skin compared to their weight. and so their radiating heat disproportionately compared to us.
8:24am
elephants hardly at all, but a little mouse, a little shrew, you know there are shrews that have to-- can eat almost constantly to stay alive, just to generate the heat to stay warm. if they run out of food, they eat each other. and like a mouse eats almost its weight every day just to stay alive. and another thing, too, you won't find mice up high in the mountains where it's cold. they can't make it. they simply can't make it. they have to eat food faster than they could get it. and so you find even birds, little birds, tiny birds. you see birds, "oh, what a bird doing all the time?" eating, eating, eating, eating. "come on, you had your dinner. you had your lunch, how come he's still eating?" birds all the time eating, why? 'cause they got a lot of skin. they're radiating heat like mad compared to their size. you got a pet bird and you don't feed it, let--oh, don't feed it some day, it will probably die that night. so little things have to eat a disproportionate amount of food just to keep up with what?
8:25am
the fact they have more skin, more radiating area. how about elephant? give an elephant a handful of peanuts, it's all set for three days. okay? the elephants all inside. elephant doesn't have very much skin compared to its body weight. how come snakes can go a year without eating? well, snakes now. snakes are cold-blooded too, though, yeah? yeah. and now, so cold-blooded things, i think, they don't have to contend with this thing. they don't to eat to stay warm. they're not warm anyway. so snake or reptile or things like that don't have this problem. i should have prefaced this as mammals or warm-blooded creatures, creatures that are warmer within the environment, where they get that warmth? that's energy, honey. and where's that energy come from? it's got to come from something. it'll die--they'll digest themselves and lose weight, or they'll have to digest nutrients from the outside? so warm-blooded creatures are the ones that really have this problem. they can't-- they can't get too small without having to eat enormous amounts of food. the hummingbird. [whistles]
8:26am
honey, hummingbird really, really, got to keep fueled up all the time. it's so small. it's warm-blooded. the hummingbird got to get a lot of food. if you think--get the nectar very high energy, high sugar content, yeah? but the hummingbird, they got to go from station to station without running out, die quickly without the food. how about the elephants, gang? you be knowing why the elephants got big ears? what if you play a trick in the elephant and cut off its ears? what it's gonna do? it's gonna roast to death. right? elephants doesn't have very much, much surface area. and the elephants in the warm country, the elephants got to radiate off the energy, okay? how's it gonna to do it? they don't have enough skin. it puts up more skin. you see its eyes--those ears. those ears on a hot day, those ears come out. on the cold days, slap against the body, yeah? on a hot day, they come up-- they're radiating surfaces. they're radiating-- they increased the area of the elephant so it can make up for that area it doesn't have. so big things don't have as much skin as little things
8:27am
compared to the body weight. why do you chew food? why it-- [makes sounds] --like--your fiends do it. take a hamburger-- it's gone in one bite, okay? [laughter] you chew the food to make smaller pieces. smaller pieces so you can digest it easily, more easily, more surface area, increases surface area. let's talk about falling things. you guys know when your pet hamster falls off the roof? pet hamsters, okay. your pet mouse falls off the top of the tall roof-- once a way, it's okay. how about a horse? [laughter] splash, okay. or human being crunched, okay? but little things, little things can fall great distances without hurting themselves. i wonder they have anything to do with what we're talking about today. yeah. if you're gonna jump from an airplane
8:28am
and you wanna live, you increase your surface area by you-- you get yourself a parachute. and you get that parachute and you increase your area, yeah? does a mouse have to do that? does an insect have-- does an ant have to do that? honey, an ant is a parachute. an ant got so much area compared to its weight. it's-- [makes sounds] --float and walk away, okay? so it turns out that little things have the advantage when they fall, because they'll reach their terminal velocity very quickly. little things-- that's because they have a lot of surface area compared to their weight. let's talk about terminal velocities. i got here some coffee filters, gang. i got two coffee filters. these will reach their terminal velocity very quickly. watch this. that's strange. they fell at the same time. that's not strange at all. they both have the same amount of weight and they both have the same amount of air resistance.
8:29am
what if i make this one twice as heavy by putting the two together? which one will hit the ground first? the heavier one. did you see that? the heavier one because it has greater weight compared to its air resistance, okay? now, here's the thing we got to look at. there's the weight and there's the resistance. when these things fall, they reached their terminal velocity very, very quickly. now, that resistance depends how fast it's going. maybe that resistance is proportional to the speed. if it is, if it's directly proportional to the speed, then that means the distance something falls-- remember the distance is speed times time? that would mean that this would be proportional to resistance, this would be proportional to the weight. if the distance something falls to be proportional to the weight multiplied by the time.
8:30am
if that's true, that means something twice as heavy will fall twice as far in the same time. let's see if that's true. ted, can i have your help? i've got a two-meter stick here, gang. ted, could you hold that two-meter stick up? this is ted barnstorm, ta. [laughter] and what i'm gonna do is i'm gonna hold this one up here, two meters high, and this one meter high, and i'm gonna drop them at the same time. if the resistance is proportional to velocity, they'll hit the ground at the same time because this one will fall twice as far as this, okay? let's try it and see. they did not hit at the same time. so hypothesis, no good. but let's suppose the resistance is compared-- stay right there, ted-- it's compared to the velocity square? all right? if it's proportional to the velocity square,
8:31am
then that means-- velocity square proportional to resistance proportional to the weight that means the velocity would be proportional to the square root of the weight. can you see that? if that's true, then the distance something falls would be equal to the square root of the weight. so if i had something twice as heavy, that greater distance it falls will be proportional to twice the square root of the weight times the time. but that's proportional to-- and this is that. so if it's true that the resistance is proportional to speed square, then the distance one falls is going to be equal to square root of two times the weight. you know the square root of two is, anyone? 1.4. it turns out to be 1.414, okay, times the little distance. if that's true, if i hold this thing up
8:32am
1.4 times higher than this, they should hit the ground at the same time. shall we try it? i've got this marked off. so this distance here is d, and up here turns out to be 1.4 times higher than d. so i'm gonna put the twice as heavy one up here and this down here and drop them, and see if they hit at the same time. ready, mark, set, go. did you see that? at the same time. let's try it one more time. do it on this side. do it on both sides. okay. oh, the heavy one on top, and the light one with the mark right here. okay, ready. one, two, three. see that? same time. this ball here has twice the diameter of this one.
8:33am
this is twice as high off the table. twice the diameter, that means it has eight times the weight, okay? this one here has eight times as much weight but four times as much area. so what's the ratio? two weights to one area. the same ratio we had over here. i should be able to drop this with one ball, one unit high, the other 1.4 unit high. and when i do that, though-- watch this, gang. they don't fall together. you know why? because they didn't reach their terminal velocities. the balls really are too heavy. so what i could do is i get lighter balls where it reached the terminal velocity right away. when i drop this thing here, it didn't have to go very far at all before it reaches tv, maybe accelerate it for about a centimeter, then it's tv all the way down. so you know what i'm saying? but these things will accelerate all the way to the floor. but if i put these in a more viscous medium, then it won't accelerate but by a tiny, tiny bit.
8:34am
and we can do that with this container of water. ted. ted and i have been playing around with this a day before yesterday. so what we got here now is we got a couple of spheres, and one is twice the diameter of the other. it means it weighs eight times as much, and it's got a weight-area ratio of 2:1. so when i drop these two things both at the same time, of course, the heavy one will hit first. you see that? but what i'm gonna do-- [laughter] --i'm not gonna drop them. i take this-- [laughter] you guys are wondering, yeah? yeah. ted was doing that yesterday because his arm is-- he got long arms. so we--he had this little thing made out. isn't that kinda neat, see? oh, yeah. [laughter]
8:35am
here's what we're gonna do. this is ted's idea, by the way. so what we're gonna do, i'm gonna put this up here. oh, no, no. it's my idea to screw it up, okay? [laughter] so i'll put the bottom-- this one here. oh, what we've done is we've measured this off. from here to here is d. and from here to here is 1.4 times d. this is a little bit longer, of course, you can see. and it's at 1.4, same thing we've got with the cops. so let's try it now. right there. there we go. oh. that's why we get this-- oops, more water. oh. oh, we've got some more water. it's good--on that, yeah? [laughter] okay, here we go, gang. the little one here. [laughter]
8:36am
big one here. and i'm gonna flip this off to the side and see if you don't see them both fall at the same-- yehey, yehey. huh? isn't that nice? okay? so heavy things will fall faster or the same as light things? faster. faster. these fell at the same time because one, of course, was higher. one had to go up a greater distance. ain't that nice? okay. yeah, do it one more time. oh, one more time. yeah. why not? if these were a couple of dead fish and the couple of dead fish were going down, which dead fish would get to the bottom first, the big one or the little one? the big one. the big one. the big one will fall faster, yeah? yeah. do you have any friends that swim? do you have any friends that are like competition swimmers? do you know any competition swimmers who are-- look at that.
8:37am
do you know any competition swimmers who are small? will this effect of scaling be useful or nonuseful to a small swimmer? two people fall off a cliff in a vacuum, big person, small person. which one hits the ground first? the same. now, two people fall off a cliff in the air, one is heavy, one is light. which one hits the ground? the heavy. i take these two balls here, one is heavy, one is light. which one went faster through the water? heavy. heavy. and the light one, honey, got to do some tricks or something to keep up with the heavy one. that's right. so big boats usually go faster than the small boats. the big fish swim smarter than fast fish. the small fish-- [laughter] you know a big fish will open up their mouth and just go, right?
8:38am
the little fish can't keep up. the little things have more resistance compared to their strength. the effects of scaling. yehey. [music]
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